Miami Green Homes


Design after COVID 19. How the virus may affect architectural design for the home, Part I

There is no doubt that the “after” will bring with it some changes and lasting adjustments. After looking at how the office and office culture are likely affected, what do changes to the home may look like?

In the home – Part I:

“Shelter in place” and “remote work from home” are certainly familiar terms these days. But how does this cozy space need to change to continue to be the safe haven we all seek? The answer is linked to our daily use of familiar areas and activities.

Let’s start with the approach. Coming from the outside world; work, shopping, exercise, etc. into the home in South Florida its likely done by car. If you are lucky to have a garage, that will be the point of first contact. Otherwise, the front door will serve as this space. Technology is already widely available to assist with remote unlocking and opening, so the touchless entry is already safe and will likely expand into a standard feature. Materials used for hardware will also change to reflect easy cleaning and disinfecting. More apps are likely to make the transition from the approach into the house easy, sensor-based, and even remote.

The next space is the actual entrance. South Florida rarely features a true foyer as commonly found in northern regions. The main reason for this architecturally speaking is the lack of need to keep the cold out and shed all clothing relating to severe or unpleasant weather. This too will change by design. No longer concerned only with air condition leaking to the outside, the entrance vestibule or foyer will find its way into the updated post COVIT-19 designed home. This can be new or retrofit to create the buffer needed to bring items from the outside into the home and transition out of protective clothing as well as provide a first layer for viral shedding and reduced transmittal of possible contaminants. Doormats, filters, and UV cabinets for certain clothing may look futuristic but are likely to be integrated here with new materials and will take up some of this space.

mudroom

Mudroom transition from the garage into the house.

In more spacious homes this room may also be added as an interface between the garage and the house. Already a popular feature in new home design, the mud-room – a transitional space between garage and kitchen or pantry – no longer will be used for backpacks, school supplies, and large shopping trips only. It will now include a disinfection station and for front line workers, may include a disposable section, similar to a sharps or biohazard removal container setup.

Once inside the home, personal interactions will also be guided by hands-free decisions and upgrades. Appliances, light control, sound systems, faucets, showers, etc., are already integrating these features. More is sure to come, combing voice and motion activation. Think about your favorite Spaceship Enterprise stage setup…

Rain Shower Set System 20" x 14" with Touch Panel Smart Mixer and Remote Controlled LED - VAVALA Vavala FLUXURIE.COM

Free access – modern voice-command controlled shower

Lounging in the living area, working in the designated home station (look for part II B on more for this feature), or getting the well-deserved shut-eye are areas of personal use that should not change a great deal from current design preferences. The 2 most impacted areas are the bathroom and the kitchen. Following a typical daily routine, the first step once rolling out of bed, having told the alarm to stop ringing, would be the use of the toilet. Touch unavoidable by sitting down, but “clean-up” is changing. Besides the paranoia of purchasing toilet paper, there is no real need for this ancient relic in the post COVIT design. Paperless cleansing toilet seats do not just eliminate the need for paper, but will also reduce the need for touch; flushing voice active as well.

Touchless Toilet Seat Covers : Toilet Seat covers

The bathroom sink will also be touchless or voice-activated and will likely include some UV lighting to further incorporate disinfecting. This is more important upon the noted return to the home above, but will become a standard feature in the near future. Next is the shower, again simple already in place solutions for turning on/off, regulating temperature and pressure. Accessibility is likely to be the big winner not just though incorporating commands, but also by the increase in space to avoid tight areas more likely to touch someone or something, think shower curtains, versus a nice roll-in shower.

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Doorless shower access. Enlarged shower for easy access

On to the kitchen: The kitchen counter is already typically a biohazard, no matter how well it is maintained. We use it daily and materials will change to be both user friendly and sanitary. Microbial cutting surfaces and disinfectant under cabinet light are good choices. The fridge, appliances, and cooktops all will be retrofitted with voice commands and contribute to the touchless function of the kitchen space. Eating will hopefully still be manual !

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With this increase in technology, reliable power and data will become paramount. An increased energy demand can be offset with photovoltaic systems and supported by other renewable energy resources. A designated server space will also find its way int the post COVID designed home, maybe with a pantry or otherwise near the kitchen for easy access.

With so many integrated features to make one s life better, how do we now interact with others inside the home? Look for part II about the family group, friends and family visiting, and the work at home environment.

Sebastian Eilert, AIA

PS: Side note about the daily routine. A great read I found is “A Million Years In A Day” by Greg Jenner, following the history of many of the daily routines and chores done in the home.



Design after COVID 19 – How the virus may affect architectural design and the profession of architecture.

There is no doubt that the “after” will bring with it some changes and lasting adjustments. How would the practice of architecture be impacted by the pandemic? Let’s look at both the business and office culture of the architectural profession as well as some of the most common project types.

A Weekly Surveillance Summary of U.S. COVID-19 Activity

PART I – the architectural office:

Architects were generally known as one of the early adaptors of the “studio environment” which is the layout of a large open space without walls, cubicles and many shared and connected work stations. This concept was encouraged, so various design groups may openly communicate on any working projects and share the drafting plans they were working on more easily and without having to carry them between desks. The move to computer-based drafting, CAD, had little impact on the layout, only adding monitors to most working areas, but maintain a large surface to open and work on printed plans. The collaboration attitude was embraced by many other office types from creatives of all walks to government planners and realtors- in short, any profession that does not require absolute privacy or limited workspace. Individual officed, enclosed conference rooms and open break areas are also typically part of these office configurations completing the challenge to redesign these areas post COVID-19.

To start creating a safe work area, the spacing of everything will have to be adjusted to allow for proper social, or better physical, distancing. As such physical barriers are likely to be introduced. In an attempt to keep the open studio feel, these are likely to be transparent, presenting an opportunity for some newly adapted materials. The pattern of walking will be adjusted to minimize the opportunity to pass another person. Directional corridors and one way in – one way out are sure to become the norm as one is less likely to pick up viral load from a co-worker in line than passing and physical distancing is more easily accomplished.

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Controls are sure to be impacted as well. Light and control switched will be eliminated to react to motion and voice activation, likely a technological connection of personal devices to start and control computers, task lighting, and other work station related equipment. Hands-free will be the norm. Already many systems have these features and most areas easily retrofitted.

Connectivity through cameras will only increase to avoid the concentration of conference room style meetings. This presents the challenge of acoustic control at individual work areas already an issue anyone can attest to wanting to have a private conversation in the open studio layout. Solution? Individual sound booth – a revival of the phone booth – less the phone, just a camera, touchless of course!

Sanitation will be key. To start, the HVAC system will need to be updated to work harder on filtering. Much like many casinos, we will see upgrades and retrofitting to include improved filtration. Add to this ultraviolet or a new kind of disinfecting system both stationary at most points of entry/exit as well as at the individual workstations. Hand sanitizer stations will be standard and available plenty, but there are likely portable disinfecting stations that allow for a more thorough touchless cleansing, reducing viral load thought the workday.

What cannot be avoided to be touched, will get finishes that naturally disinfect, such as silver and copper: door handles and knobs, elevator buttons – where voiceless commands or waved card readers are not practical or possible to retrofit.  Public bathrooms will present another challenge with the added importance of privacy. ADA has already provided standards to improve access and movement and with post COVID – 19, additional physical distancing guidelines are likely the solution to this challenge. Touchless faucets and motion-activated fixtures, spaced 6 feet apart, and fully individualized compartments that self sanitize after each use. Here, too the use of personal devices is likely to assist with the availability of the facilities, rather than waiting in line. Virtual queueing alarming the next user that the stall is empty and has been sanitized.

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The common them to most of these solutions is more space to allow for more distance. Design for the architectural office, as for most others, will require a larger footprint per employee – for workstation, circulation and support spaces.

The temporary workspace, rented as needed, institutions like We Work and Büro are likely to disappear in the aftermath of this pandemic. The challenge of sanitation and encouraged close proximity of workstations will present a true challenge to maintain a safe and physically distant work environment.

 

The alternative? Work from home: Look for PART II – in the home.



There Goes The Neighborhood: Miami – Part 2 (From The Stakes) | WLRN

The fear of mass displacement isn’t paranoia for black people in Liberty City. It’s family history. WLRN and WYNC studios present the second episode of a
— Read on www.wlrn.org/post/there-goes-neighborhood-miami-part-2-stakes



Climate Gentrification – study applied to Miami – Interesting podcast. There Goes the Neighborhood: Miami—Part 1 (from The Stakes) | WLRN

First of 3 parts looking at the concept of climate gentrification in Miami. Does seawater change where future developments will happen? Taking over high ground LIttle Haiti and Liberty City for future developments may suggest that it is a real consideration.

Listen to the podcast through WLRN.

The sea level is rising–and so is the rent.  WLRN and WYNC studios present the first episode of a three part series on climate gentrification.
— Read on http://www.wlrn.org/post/there-goes-neighborhood-miami-part-1-stakes



Age in Place, Part III: Technology

After understating the general concept of aging in place found here: und further the required physical connections found here: the next piece of the puzzle to look at the way technology contributes to the age in pace concept. There are two main areas to understand for the aging in place concept integration with technology: the personal connection and the connected infrastructure.

Personal connections are not new (anymore) and are changing at an amazing pace every day. Smart phones have long replaced personal computers in the way that we connect to each other as well to the business world around us. Video chatting, online shopping, social media and remote services are improving our personal life daily. While the youth is seeking ever sleeker ways to connect, share and integrated, no generation is excluded by these technologies. The simplification of the devices has further enabled anyone to instinctively utilize and access websites and apps. From ordering dinner at the local diner for delivery to connecting with family half way around the world, technology is here to make life easy.

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To take advantage of the network, all is need is a connection to it. This must be viewed as just another basic utility and no longer requires fixed land line connections. The personal network is easily connected to the larger infrastructure. Once established, the advantages and necessities for the age in place concept strongly focus on comfort, security and medical connection.

Of course integration of other features within the living unit are great and convenient, but the connection to outside services and utilities is the true benefit for the aging in place group. Online doctors’ visits to emergency response contacts, the technological lifeline makes remote living safe. Security can also easily be achieved with remote access, cameras and other services providing screening for visitors, deliveries and other concerns. Hitchcock’s “Rear Window” would be very different with today’s technology plug ins!

rearwindow

Start with an integrated home automation system such as Control4 or Lutron to be part of any age in place design planning. There are many providers such as AT&T, Comcast, ADT, etc. that offer some sort of integration service package.

Lastly, consider researching the overall city integration for smart services. Smart City is a great site to learn more: www.SmartCity.com  or Smart Cities Council: http://smartcitiescouncil.com/



Water and wastewater (WWW) treatment – a look at the energy used for water in the US

While water and wastewater (WWW) treatment accounts for a surprising 5% of total U.S. electric power generation, topographically-variable WWW conveyance account for a more surprising 15% of the same total [Pod06; Coh04]. In addition, while wastewater contains energy in dilute form, current goals for recovering such energy represent only 0.02% of the total generation, through the use of microbial fuel cells of the future [Log04]. If, on the other hand, WWW were decentralized, up to 15% of total U.S. electric power production could be saved.

 

While centralization of WWW treatment was implemented to concentrate resources and ensure water quality, today many monitoring, quality control, and operation and maintenance (O&M) functions can be decentralized electronically. Imagine, if each building of the future contains a direct potable reuse system, then maintenance personnel, rather than driving to a central facility daily, would be dispatched electronically to neighborhoods for routine annual maintenance. Moreover, decentralization would increase the accountability of neighborhood residents in terms of responsible use of water, personal care products, and household chemicals.

 

Beyond energy savings, autonomous net-zero water (ANZW) buildings would not need to treat for most pesticides (US, 5 billion lbs/y) and industrial chemicals (US, 6 billion lbs/y), representing a total mass loading of 2 mg/L on U.S. surface and groundwater runoff. Treatment instead would focus on effective destruction of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as pharmaceuticals, which cannot be as easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life as pesticides and other chemicals, by advanced oxidation. This latter advantage would address the current 6% feminization of male fish across all species (20%, black bass) in U.S. river basins [Hin09]. Finally, an urban demand for e.g. one million gallons of water every day in Southeast Florida would be removed from the (Everglades) natural system. Eliminated would be water rationing, and the need to treat seawater with total impurity levels two orders of magnitude higher than drinking water standards, to drinking water standards when impurities in treated wastewater e.g. in S. Florida currently meet 87 of the 93 numerical drinking water standards on average without further treatment.

 

Increased construction activity in the outlined areas over the last 10+ years. Many infill projects and zero lot line developments. Increased population growth in the target area with increased load (people) and demand (use per individual). Overall individual load has increased over X years by X gallons per day. Strain on water treatment system and infrastructure, especially close to water ways cited. Septic tanks systems that are undersized, outdated or broken, without eh owner knowledge. Purposeful (non permitted or documented) re-routing of sewage water to nearby water ways and excess burden on municipal sewer system with surface water runoff, increased rainfall intensity and more man-made diversions of water. Quantity of subsurface runoff (stormwater).

 

Estimates of water use in the United States indicate that about 410 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d) were withdrawn in 2005 for all categories summarized in this report. This total is slightly less than the estimate for 2000, and about 5 percent less than total withdrawals in the peak year of 1980. Freshwater withdrawals in 2005 were 349 Bgal/d, or 85 percent of the total freshwater and saline-water withdrawals. Fresh groundwater withdrawals of 79.6 Bgal/day in 2005 were about 5 percent less than in 2000, and fresh surface-water withdrawals of 270 Bgal/day were about the same as in 2000. Withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation and irrigation, the two largest uses of water, have stabilized or decreased since 1980. Withdrawals for public-supply and domestic uses have increased steadily since estimates began. http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1344/